Styles in interior design and architecture throughout the ages. Ancient Greece and Rome.
Greek and Roman architectural styles have long been connected in their similarities between the temples and other architectural structures that both civilizations created. Romans were highly influenced by the Greeks in their approach to construction; however, they also diverted to create a separate identity. Romans, as well as Greeks, strived to create perfect temples, dedicated to gods and glorify their power.
Greek architecture is the most enduring and timeless. The period of Classical Greece lasted between 650 BC – 350 BC. Greek architects constructed some of the most distinctive buildings in the entire Ancient World. “They built a lasting civilization that is still strong and proud to this day. Greece has had a profound, if not the most profound, influence on the development of Western culture.”
Greek architecture followed a structured system of proportions. This system was developed according to the three styles, or orders. They are – Doric (1), Ionic (2) and Corinthian (3). The Greeks preferred Doric and Ionic styles of columns in their temples. The Parthenon (4), a temple in Acropolis, is an outstanding example of Doric column. The Erechtheion, a temple on the north side of the Acropolis, is an example of Ionic style. Romans copied the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles and modified them. Generally, Romans tended to favour Corinthian, highly decorated column in their temples. A great example is Pantheon – the power and glory of Roman architecture.
Both, Greeks and Romans, building’s construction was based on post and lintel system, which is made up of columns, large upright posts, and architrave over the top, lintel. They also used Enthasis in their buildings to create an optical illusion, which makes the construction appear more slender.
Ancient Greek theaters were large and open-air; they were usually built on the slop of the hillside and had a truly breathtaking view. Roman theaters derived their basic design from the Theatre of Pompey, the first Roman theater. The structure of the Roman’s theaters was influenced by the Greeks. However, Roman theaters have specific differences, such as being built upon their own foundations, instead of earthen works or hillside. Also, they were completely enclosed on all sides.
Romans used Amphitheatres (5- Coliseum), a freestanding building of round or oval shape with the central arena, and seats placed around it. They were used for events such as gladiator combats and venations (wild beasts show).
One of the greatest Roman engineering inventions is known as Aqueducts. Aqueducts, the most glorious of ancient water systems, are still in use today in various cities.
Arches were commonly used in Roman architecture. They were used for both, its aesthetic appearance and support in many of Ancient Rome’s buildings and monuments. The Romans also used the principles of the arch to form a hemispherical ceiling or roof called a dome. An early example of a dome is the Roman Pantheon.
Interiors of the Greeks and Romans houses were lavishly decorative. The walls were painted with fragments of landscape or mythological scenes. Houses were decorated with murals, patterns and marble, sculptors (6) and other decorative arts (8). They used wooden or bronze furniture, very elegant and simple in style, but very functional, such as Curule chair (7).
Ancient Greek and Roman architecture have had a very big impact on modern buildings; we can see it in University buildings, government buildings, and hospitals, as well as mansions and large homes, probably because this style represents wealth and power. Ancient Greek and Roman styles were also reflected in using of decorative mouldings, which are used today in contemporary interiors.