Styles in interior design and architecture throughout the ages. Georgian and Victorian styles.
Georgian style occurred during the reign of the British monarchs of the House of Hanover – George1, George2, George3, and George 4. The style was popular during the 18th– beginning of the 19th century and revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival and in the 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture.
Georgian style was greatly influenced by Palladian architecture. Proportions, planning, symmetry and detailing of the Georgian houses resembled 16th Century villas and Piazzi of the outstanding Italian architect Andrea Palladio. Two significant architects of the Georgian era, Colen Campbell (1673-1729) and William Kent (1685-1748) were greatly inspired by Ancient Greek and Roman structures, as well as Palladian architecture.
Georgian period is classified into three different stages: Early Georgian (1714-1750), Middle Georgian (1750-1770) and Late Georgian (1770-1820). The style of the Early Georgian Era and the Middle Georgian era was remarkably influenced by its predecessor the Rococo style, however, the Late Georgian era was mainly influenced by Greek and Roman epoch.
Architect Robert Adam (1728-1792) was the most successful architect during the second half of 18th century. He built the grandest houses of the Late Georgian era. “His development of the Adelphi, overlooking the river Themes in London, was perhaps his most influential work. The terraces/rows of brick houses were united by the treatment of the facade, with swags, ribbons and arabesques on the exterior walls, echoing the treatment of the interior.” (The Elements Of Style, Stephen Calloway, 1991.) Robert Adam (1) and the Adam brothers were the most known architects of the Late Georgian style, as well as interior designers and furniture makers.
The brick-built terraced/row houses became most characteristic and important building type of Georgian era. Interiors of the town houses were elegant and lavish, walls, ceiling, floor, furniture, mouldings, rugs and decorations were beautifully unified. Walls were usually painted with the plain colour or covered with wall panelling or wallpaper (4). Silk (3) was used for window treatment, wall covering or furniture upholstery. The colour scheme was mainly pale, sometimes mixed with bright.
Thomas Chippendale along with Thomas Sheraton and George Hepplewhite (2)were the leading furniture designers of that time.
Regency style occurred during 1811 and lasted until 1830. Architects of the terraces/rows of town houses experimented with the established forms and proportions of the Georgian house and modified them. Some Regency interiors were greatly inspired by exotic or historical styles. Among these fancy styles are rooms in Chinese, Turkish, Egyptian or Gothic tastes.
The British High Victorian style grew during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901), characterised by massive construction and elaborated ornamentation. During that time Britain had led the industrial revolution, which made possible the use of new materials, such as iron and glass. The era was influenced by many earlier styles, like Renaissance, Gothic, Rococo, as well as eclectic motif and fusion of every style.
Victorian’s houses distinctive features include white-painted classical sash windows, pretty balconies, curly gables, moulded brickwork or terracotta ornaments, and a cast-iron porch. Interiors of Victorian houses were sumptuously decorated (5), often using mosaic tiles, stained glass, patterned rugs, elaborate rich curtains, using velvet (6), silk (7), fringes (8). Victorians rejected the idea of the 18th century classicism, the restraint, the delicacy of the previous styles, white or pale walls. They wanted clatter, bright colours, patterned textiles and wallpaper (9), they wanted excess. It was importance and wealth. The leading architect of the Victorian style was Sir Gilbert Scott, who designed and altered over 800 buildings.
Georgian and Victorian traditional styles are still popular by now, particularly in the UK.