Styles in interior design and architecture throughout the ages. Renaissance Period.
During the Renaissance period architects sought for inspiration in the classical antiquity. Its architectural principles were formed on symmetry, proportion, geometry, and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in antique Greece and Rome. Above all, architects strived to create ideal proportions for buildings, based on proportions of the human body. Renaissance style was found in Florence in 15th century and gradually spread to other Italian cities, and later had expanded to France, Germany, Russia and other parts of Europe and lasted until 17th century.
Fillipo Brunelleschi is considered to be the first Renaissance architect. His most famous work is the octagonal brick dome of Florence Basilica. Brunelleschi’s dome was the” largest the world would ever see” – genius of Renaissance architecture.
The founder and leader of High Renaissance was Donato Bramante, who was a “member of High Renaissance trio, along with Michelangelo (3- Ceiling of Sistine Chapel), the foremost sculptor of the period, and Raphael, the foremost painter. “
Renaissance architects and designers used the same principles of construction as Ancient Greek and particularly Roman architects. They used the classical order of columns: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. The columns could be either structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or decorative. Another distinguishing feature of the Renaissance architecture was arch (2). “Arches were used in arcades, supported on pierce or columns with capitals.” Domes (1) were used frequently especially after the success of Brunelleschi’s dome for Santa Maria del Fiore and became one of the most recognizable characteristics of renaissance epoch.
Andrea Palladio was a favourite architect of the Venetian aristocracy. Palladio was known primarily for villa design (5- Villa Rotonda), he was the foremost architect of the Late Renaissance and one of the most influential architects of all times. Palladio himself was heavily influenced by Vitruvius, the ancient Roman architect, whose structural principles were based on symmetry, balance and harmony with the surrounding. He also teaches that buildings “must have three virtues: utilitas, it has to serve its function well; firmitas, it must stand up; and venustas, beauty.”
Another significant architect of Renaissance era was Inigo Johns, who was the first follower of Andrea Palladio and has been described as “the father of English Palladianism.” His most well-known buildings are Queen’s House in Greenwich and the Banqueting House, Whitehall.
Interiors of the Renaissance buildings (4)were lavishly decorated with ornamentation, frescoes (6), paintings, mosaics on walls and ceilings, sculptures and decorative mouldings, which usually resembled the exteriors. Curule chair (7), which was so popular in ancient Greece and Rome, was back into use.
Renaissance architecture and particularly Palladian influence spread all over Europe, Georgian England and America during the 19th-20th century.